NASA Office of Logic Design

NASA Office of Logic Design

A scientific study of the problems of digital engineering for space flight systems,
with a view to their practical solution.


Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter

 
New Lunar Topographic Map is Best Yet

A LOLA digital elevation map compiled in late 2009 is compared to the Unified Lunar Control Network (ULCN) 2005, a painstakingly constructed map based on the best available data at the time.

  LRO/LOLA - Counting Craters

Using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiters Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), NASA scientists have created the first-ever comprehensive catalog of large craters on the moon. In this animation, lunar craters larger than 20km in diameter light up using LOLA elevation data.

     

June 22, 2009

Explanation: This rocket is headed for the Moon. Pictured above, a huge Altas V rocket roared off the launch pad last week to start NASA's first missions to Earth's Moon in 10 years. The rocket is carrying two robotic spacecraft. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is scheduled to orbit and better map the Moon, search for buried and hidden ice, and return many high resolution images. Some images will be below one-meter in resolution and include images of historic Apollo landing sites. Exploratory data and images should allow a more informed choice of possible future astronaut landing sites. The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) is scheduled to monitor the controlled impact of the rocket's upper stage into a permanently shadowed crater near the Moon's south pole. This impact, which should occur in about three months, might be visible on Earth through small telescopes.

 

Announcement

LRO Fact Sheet

Robotic Lunar Exploration Home Page

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Overview: The Instrument Suite and Mission

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Navigation Overview May 21, 2008

LRO and LCROSS Press Kit, June 2009

Multimedia Gallery Images, video, and animations for LRO and LCROSS can be found at: LRO:

The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Laser Ranging Investigation, Space Science Reviews, 2009

Abstract: The objective of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Laser Ranging (LR) system is to collect precise measurements of range that allow the spacecraft to achieve its requirement for precision orbit determination. The LR will make one-way range measurements via laser pulse time-of-flight from Earth to LRO, and will determine the position of the spacecraft at a sub-meter level with respect to ground stations on Earth and the center of mass of the Moon. Ranging will occur whenever LRO is visible in the line of sight from participating Earth ground tracking stations. The LR consists of two primary components, a flight system and ground system. The flight system consists of a small receiver telescope mounted on the LRO high-gain antenna that captures the uplinked laser signal, and a fiber optic cable that routes the signal to the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument on LRO. The LOLA instrument receiver records the time of the laser signal based on an ultrastable crystal oscillator, and provides the information to the onboard LRO data system for storage and/or transmittal to the ground through the spacecraft radio frequency link. The LR ground system consists of network of satellite laser ranging stations, a data reception and distribution facility, and the LOLA Science Operations Center. LR measurements will enable the determination of a threedimensional geodetic grid for the Moon based on the precise seleno-location of ground spots from LOLA.

Apollo Laser Altimeters

Clementine Laser Altimeter

Two LOLA Seminars: (note: add DASC 2008 presentations/papers)

Waveforms

September 21, 2009:

LRO BEGINS DETAILED MAPPING OF MOONS SOUTH POLE: NASA reported on September 17 that its Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has successfully completed its testing and calibration phase and entered its mapping orbit of the Moon. Scientists released preliminary images and data from LROs seven instruments. LRO is scheduled for a one-year exploration mission in a polar orbit of about 31 miles above the lunar surface, the closest any spacecraft has orbited the Moon. During the next year, LRO will produce a complete map of the lunar surface in unprecedented detail, search for resources and safe landing sites for human explorers, and measure lunar temperatures and radiation levels. For more information about LRO and to view the new images, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/lro.


Size:

Mass:

Power:

Current (mA)
  12V 5V 3.3V and 1.5V
(combined)
3.3V 1.5V
  +60 C 463 40 640    
  +25 C 408 38 464 225 236
  -30 C 342 35 438    

 


Data from March 18-19, 2008  Thermal/Air Test: (after rework and after vibe)

Power

      Smalley On Smalley Off  
  12V 5V 3.3V and 1.5V
(combined)
1.5V 3.3V and 1.5V
(combined)
1.5V 1.5 Legend
+81 C 510 40 737 1809 670 1719 C&T: 18-9
 986  986 RMU:  8-9
+60 C 470 40 619 1385 552 1294 C&T: 18-9
 763 763 RMU:  8-9
+25 C 415 38 536 1046 470  956 C&T: 18-9
 577  577 RMU:  8-9
-30 C 345 36 505  858 441  769 C&T: 18-9
 453  453 RMU:  8-9

 

Thermistors
(GSFC-S-311-P-18 Rev G: Dash -07, -08)

  C&T RMU
  Board
(19-20)
MSK
(21-22)
LM117
(19-20)
TDC
(21-22)
Actel
(23-24)
Board
(25-26)
  +81 C 1.13k
89C
0.99k
93C
1.02k
92C
1.06k
91C
1.11k
89C
1.17k
87C
  +60 C 2.23k
66C
2.01k
69C
1.98k
70C
2.07k
69C
2.18k
67C
2.27k
66C
  +25 C 7.79k
31C
7.05k
34C
6.78k
35C
7.18k
33C
7.60k
32C
7.96k
31C
  -30 C 96.3k
-24C
88.0k
-21C
84.9k
-21C
88.6k
-22C
93.9k
-23C
100k
-24C

 

Duty Cycle (%)

   TDC No. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
  +81 C 80 87 82 88 84 86 84 86 86 86 82 83
  +60 C 64 71 66 71 68 70 68 70 69 70 66 67
  +25 C 42 47 43 48 45 47 45 47 46 47 44 44
  -30 C 13 17 14 17 16 17 15 17 16 17 15 15

 


Data from March 13, 2008  Thermal/Air Test: (after rework and prior to vibe)

Power

      Smalley On Smalley Off  
  12V 5V 3.3V and 1.5V
(combined)
1.5V 3.3V and 1.5V
(combined)
1.5V 1.5 Legend
+85 C 510 40 724 1766 mV 658 1670 mV C&T: 18-9
 982 mV  982 mV RMU:  8-9
+60 C 459 40 602 1319 mV 536 1226 mV C&T: 18-9
 736 mV  736 mV RMU:  8-9
+25 C 405 38 529 1025 mV 464  934 mV C&T: 18-9
 561 mV  561 mV RMU:  8-9
-30 C 341 36 504  843 mV 440  754 mV C&T: 18-9
 450 mV  450 mV RMU:  8-9

 

Thermistors
(GSFC-S-311-P-18 Rev G: Dash -07, -08)

  C&T RMU
  Board
(19-20)
MSK
(21-22)
LM117
(19-20)
TDC
(21-22)
Actel
(23-24)
Board
(25-26)
  +85 C 1.19k 1.09k 1.01k 1.08k 1.14k 1.18k
  +60 C 2.61k 2.43k 2.17k 2.34k 2.49k 2.57k
  +25 C 9.33k 8.74k 7.60k 8.31k 8.86k 9.17k
  -30 C  122k  112k   97k  108k  116k  120k

 

Duty Cycle (%)

   TDC No. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
  +85 C 80 87 81 88 84 86 83 86 85 86 82 82
  +60 C 62 69 63 69 66 68 65 67 66 68 64 64
  +25 C 40 46 41 46 43 45 43 45 44 45 41 42
  -30 C 12 16 13 16 14 16 14 15 14 15 13 13

 


S/N 2: Post thermal, pre-coat, September 2, 2008 (all pictures and data without a S/N are S/N 001)

C&T (Command and Telemetry)

RMU (Range Measurement Unit)

 


May 2, 2008: MIL-STD-1553B Transformer Fix


March 13, 2008: DU Boards Installed Into Housing


March 12, 2008: After replacing reversed cap and Nusil under LM117's

Digital Unit: C&T and RMU

 

C&T

 

RMU

 

The Magnesium Housing


October 16, 2007: Preparation of the Digital Unit box


October 13, 2007: Pictures from coating and staking


Delivery, just prior to conformal coat.  October 5, 2007.

 


LOLA was inspired in part by the old Pioneer probes ... and we've dusted off some test equipment from that era!  September 26, 2007.


Running Smalley3, October 19, 2007


FM1, Pre-delivery, August 22, 2007


Range Measurement Board


Command and Telemetry Board


FM Delivery, August 2007



More pictures of the 1553 "Rod  Chip", February 16, 2006

 

Some reading ...


Unmanned Space Project Management: Surveyor and Lunar Orbiter

1972
NASA SP-4901
Erasmus H. Kloman

Introduction (excerpt)
One of the valuable byproducts of the U S. space program is the body of knowledge concerning management of large complex development project activities. The brief span of years since the formation of NASA has witnessed the rapid evolution of a variety of systems and techniques for directing the combined efforts of thousands of individuals cooperating in closeknit programs in which Government, university, and private industry play mutually reinforcing roles. Many of the major learning experiences, such as those in the Apollo management system, have been applied to other activities within NASA. There has been only limited effort, however, to distill the generalized management experience gained in other NASA projects for application outside the space agency itself.

Note: NASA commissioned the National Academy of Public Administration to undertake this study to look at its innovative management techniques on these complex technological projects.


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Last Revised: December 09, 2010
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